Purpose of Assessment Tools

 

  • Provide individuals with information about their current strengths and growth areas for becoming more conscious leaders.
  • Give a team or organization an objective, comprehensive look at their capacity for conscious leadership.
  • Obtain both pre-test and post-test information.  The leadership assessment tool can be given prior to any consultation, training, or coaching and then administered as a post-test to measure change within the individual or group.

 

Why These Measures?

 

  • Selected to measure the key concepts and skills in the book, Reframing Change.
  • Psychometrically validated.
  • Used with the gracious permission of the scale authors.  We greatly appreciate these authors’ contributions to our leadership assessment tool.

Testing Assumptions

Intention to see others’ points of views: Davis, M. (1980).  A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy.  JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10(4), 85.

Takes perspective of those from different cultures: Wang, Y-W., Davidson, M. M., Yakushko, O. F., Savoy, H. B., Tan, J. A., & Bleier, J. K. (2003).  The scale of ethnocultural empathy: Development, validation, and reliability.  Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(2), 221-234.

Tendency to assume complex rather than simpler causes for behaviors: Fletcher, G. J. O., Danilovics, P., Fernandez, G., Peterson, D., & Reeder, G. D. (1986).  Attributional complexity: An individual differences measure.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(4), 875-884.

Clearing Emotions

Feelings of concern and compassion for others: Davis, M. (1980).  A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10(4), 85.

Perceived control over one’s thoughts, emotions, and reactions: Pallant, J. (2000).  Development and validation of a scale to measure perceived control of internal states. Journal of Personality Assessment, 75(2), 308-337.

Building Relationships

Credibility of feedback; quality of feedback; approach to giving feedback; positive and negative feedback received; availability of feedback; seeking feedback encouraged: Steelman, L. A., Levy, P. E., & Snell, A. F. (2004).  The Feedback Environment Scale: Construction definition, measurement, and validation.  Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(1), 165-184.

Inclination to reveal inner thoughts and feelings; propensity to trust and value others: International Personality Item Pool: A Scientific Collaboratory for the Development of Advanced Measures of Personality Traits and Other Individual Differences.  Retrieved December 13, 2008 from http://ipip.ori.org.

Willingness to seek negative and positive feedback; propensity to ask directly for feedback: Ashford, S. J., & Tsui, A. (1991).  Self-regulation for managerial effectiveness: The role of active feedback seeking.  Academy of Management Journal, 34(2), 251-280.

Tendency to cooperate with others: Zhuang, X., MacCann, C., Wang, L., Liu, L.,  Roberts, R. (2008).  Development and validity evidence supporting a teamwork and collaboration assessment for high school students [Electronic version].  Retrieved December 13, 2008, from http://www.etsliteracy.net/Media/Research/pdf/RR-08-50.pdf

Bridging Differences

Awareness of prejudicial experiences of others: Wang, Y-W, Davidson, M. M., Yakushko, O. F., Savoy, H. B., Tan, J. A., & Bleier, J. K. (2003).  The scale of ethnocultural empathy: Development, validation, and reliability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(2), 221-234.

Experienced discrimination: Hallock, K. F., Hendricks, W., & Broadbent, E. (1998).  Discrimination by gender and disability status: Do worker perceptions match statistical measures?  Southern Economic Journal, 65(2), 245-263.

Values experiences of different cultural groups; values unity of different groups; preference for own ethnic group: Wolsko, C., Park, B., & Judd, C. (2006).  Considering the Tower of Babel: Correlates of assimilation and multiculturalism among ethnic minority and majority groups in the United States.  Social Justice Research, 19(3), 277-306.

View of people as being able to develop and change: Levy, S. R., Stroessner, S. J., & Dweck, C. S. (1998).  Stereotype formation and endorsement: The role of implicit theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1421-1436.

Conscious Use of Self

Openness and curiosity about new ideas: International Personality Item Pool: A Scientific Collaboratory for the Development of Advanced Measures of Personality Traits and Other Individual Differences.  Retrieved December 13, 2008 from http://ipip.ori.org.

Personality domains – outgoing, kind and accepting, careful and dependable, stable and calm, creative and adventuresome: Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (2003).  A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains.  Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 594-528.

Takes action toward personal development: DaSilva, N., Tetrick, L. E., Slack, K. J., Etchegaray, J. M., Latting, J. K., Beck, M. H., et al. (2002). Is there a relationship between employee perceptions of organizational learning  practices and employee performance? Psychologist-Manager Journal, 6(1), 104-116.

Initiating Workplace Change

Interest in making public policy; motivation for serving public good: Kim, S. (2009).  Revising Perry’s measurement scale of Public Service Motivation.  American Review of Public Administration, 39(2), 149-163.

Meaning derived from and impact of doing community work: Measure adapted from: Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation.  Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.

Puts others’ interests before one’s own: Barbuto, J. E., Jr., & Wheeler, D. W. (2006).  Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership.  Group & Organization Management, 31(3), 300-326.

Systems thinking; shared vision: DaSilva, N., Tetrick, L. E., Slack, K. J., Etchegaray, J. M., Latting, J. K., Beck, M. H., et al. (2002). Is there a relationship between employee perceptions of organizational learning  practices and employee performance?  Psychologist-Manager Journal, 6(1), 104-116.

Takes organizational initiative: Morrison, E. W., & Phelps, C. C. (1999). Taking charge at work: Extrarole efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42(4), 403-419.

Tendency to speak up in difficult situations: Premeaux, S. F., & Bedian, A. G. (2003).  Breaking the silence: The moderating effects of self-monitoring in predicting speaking up in the workplace.  Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1537-1562.

Tendency to try to influence others; tendency to negotiate with others: Zhuang, X., MacCann, C., Wang, L., Liu, L.,  & Roberts, R. (2008).  Development and validity evidence supporting a teamwork and collaboration assessment for high school students [Electronic version].  Retrieved December 13, 2008, from http://www.etsliteracy.net/Media/Research/pdf/RR-08-50.pdf